Category Archives: Lotus Sutra

CHAPTER XX CONCEPTION OF THE TRANSCENDENT POWER OF THE TATHÂGATAS

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Thereupon those hundred thousands of myriads of kotis of Bodhisattvas equal to the dust-atoms of a macrocosm, who had issued from the gaps of the earth, all stretched their joined hands towards the Lord, and said unto him: We, O Lord, will, after the complete extinction of the Tathâgata, promulgate this Dharmaparyâya everywhere (or on every occasion) in all Buddha-fields of the Lord, wherever (or whenever) the Lord shall be completely extinct [Hence follows that Nirvâna is repeatedly entered into by the Lord]. We are anxious to obtain this sublime Dharmaparyâya, O Lord, in order to keep, read, publish, and write it.

Thereupon the hundred thousands of myriads of kotis of Bodhisattvas, headed by Mañgusrî; the monks, nuns, male and female lay devotees living in this world; the gods, Nâgas, goblins, Gandharvas, demons, Garudas, Kinnaras, great serpents, men, and beings not human, and the many Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas equal to the sands of the river Ganges, said unto the Lord: We also, O Lord, will promulgate this Dharmaparyâya after the complete extinction of the Tathâgata. While standing with an invisible body in the sky, O Lord, we will send forth a voice, and plant the roots of goodness of such creatures as have not (yet) planted roots of goodness.

Then the Lord addressed the Bodhisattva Mahasattva Visishtakâritra, followed by a troop, a great troop, the master of a troop, who was the very first of those afore-mentioned Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas followed by a troop, a great troop, masters of a troop: Very well, Visishtakâritra, very well; so you should do; it is for the sake of this Dharmaparyâya that the Tathâgata has brought you to ripeness.

Thereupon the Lord Sâkyamuni, the Tathâgata, &c., and the wholly extinct Lord Prabhûtaratna, the Tathâgata, &c., both seated on the throne in the centre of the Stûpa, commenced smiling to one another, and from their opened mouths stretched out their tongues, so that with their tongues they reached the Brahma-world, and from those two tongues issued many hundred thousand myriads of kotis of rays. From each of those rays issued many hundred thousand myriads of kotis of Bodhisattvas, with gold-coloured bodies and possessed of the thirty-two characteristic signs of a great man, and seated on thrones consisting of the interior of lotuses. Those Bodhisattvas spread in all directions in hundred thousands of worlds, and while on every side stationed in the sky preached the law. Just as the Lord Sâkyamuni, the Tathâgata, &c., produced a miracle of magic by his tongue, so, too, Prabhûtaratna, the Tathâgata, &c., and the other Tathâgatas, &c., who, having flocked from hundred thousands of myriads of kolis of other worlds, were seated on thrones at the foot of jewel trees, by their tongues produced a miracle of magic.

The Lord Sâkyamuni, the Tathâgata, &c., and all those Tathâgatas, &c., produced that magical effect during fully a thousand years. After the lapse of that millennium those Tathâgatas, &c., pulled back their tongue, and all simultaneously, at the same moment, the same instant, made a great noise as of expectoration and of snapping the fingers, by which sounds all the hundred thousands of myriads of kotis of Buddha-fields in every direction of space were moved, removed, stirred, wholly stirred, tossed, tossed forward, tossed along, and all beings in all those Buddha-fields, gods, Nâgas, goblins, Gandharvas, demons, Garudas, Kinnaras, great serpents, men, and beings not human beheld, by the power of the Buddha, from the place where they stood, this Saha-world. They beheld the hundred thousands of myriads of kotis of Tathâgatas seated severally on their throne at the foot of a jewel tree, and the Lord Sâkyamuni, the Tathâgata, &c., and the Lord Prabhûtaratna, the Tathâgata, &c., wholly extinct, sitting on the throne in the centre of the Stûpa of magnificent precious substances, along with the Lord Sâkyamuni, the Tathâgata, &c.; they beheld, finally, those four classes of the audience. At this sight they felt struck with wonder, amazement, and rapture. And they heard a voice from the sky calling: Worthies, beyond a distance of an immense, incalculable number of hundred thousands of myriads of kotis of worlds there is the world named Saha; there the Tathâgata called Sâkyamuni, the Arhat, &c., is just now revealing to the Bodhisattvas Mahasattvas the Dharmaparyâya of the Lotus of the True Law, a Sûtrânta of great extent, serving to instruct Bodhisattvas, and belonging in proper to all Buddhas. Ye accept it joyfully with all your heart, and do homage to the Lord Sâkyamuni, the Tathâgata, &c., and the Lord Prabhûtaratna, the Tathâgata, &c.

On hearing such a voice from the sky all those beings exclaimed from the place where they stood, with joined hands: Homage to the Lord Sâkyamuni, the Tathâgata. Then they threw towards the Saha-world various flowers, incense, fragrant wreaths, ointment, gold, cloth, umbrellas, flags, banners, and triumphal streamers, as well as ornaments, parures, necklaces, gems and jewels of all sorts, in order to worship the Lord Sâkyamuni, the Tathâgata, and this Dharmaparyâya of the Lotus of the True Law. Those flowers, incense, &c., and those necklaces, &c., came down upon this Saha-world, where they formed a great canopy of flowers hanging in the sky above the Tathâgatas there sitting, as well as those in the hundred thousands of myriads of kotis of other worlds.

Thereupon the Lord addressed the Bodhisattvas Mahasattvas headed by Visishtakâritra: Inconceivable, young men of good family, is the power of the Tathâgatas, &c. In order to transmit this Dharmaparyâya, young men of good family, I might go on for hundred thousands of myriads of kotis of Æons explaining the manifold virtues of this Dharmaparyâya through the different principles of the law, without reaching the end of those virtues. In this Dharmaparyâya I have succinctly taught all Buddha-laws (or Buddha-qualities), all the superiority, all the mystery, all the profound conditions of the Buddhas. Therefore, young men of good family, you should, after the complete extinction of the Tathâgata, with reverence keep, read, promulgate, cherish, worship it. And wherever on earth, young men of good family, this Dharmaparyâya shall be made known, read, written, meditated, expounded, studied or collected into a volume, be it in a monastery or at home, in the wilderness or in a town, at the foot of a tree or in a palace, in a building or in a cavern, on that spot one should erect a shrine in dedication to the Tathâgata. For such a spot must be regarded as a terrace of enlightenment; such a spot must be regarded as one where all Tathâgatas &c. have arrived at supreme, perfect enlightenment; on that spot have all Tathâgatas moved forward the wheel of the law; on that spot one may hold that all Tathâgatas have reached complete extinction.

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the following stanzas:

1. Inconceivable is the power to promote the weal of the world possessed by those who, firmly established in transcendent knowledge, by means of their unlimited sight display their magic faculty in order to gladden all living beings on earth.

2. They extend their tongue over the whole world, darting thousands of beams to the astonishment of those to whom this effect of magic is displayed and who are making for supreme enlightenment.

3. The Buddhas made a noise of expectoration and of snapping the fingers, (and by it) called the attention of the whole world, of all parts of the world in the ten directions of space.

4. Those and other miraculous qualities they display in their benevolence and compassion (with the view) that the creatures, gladly excited at the time, may (also) keep the Sûtra after the complete extinction of the Sugata.

5. Even if I continued for thousands of kotis of Æons speaking the praise of those sons of Sugata who shall keep this eminent Sûtra after thc extinction of the Leader of the world,

6. I should not have terminated the enumeration of their qualities; inconceivable as the qualities of infinite space are the merits of those who constantly keep this holy Sûtra.

7. They behold me as well as these chiefs, and the Leader of the world now extinct; (they behold) all these numerous Bodhisattvas and the four classes.

8. Such a one now here propitiates me and all these leaders, as well as the extinct chief of Ginas and the others in every quarter.

9. The future and past Buddhas stationed in the ten points of space will all be seen and worshipped by him who keeps this Sûtra.

10. He who keeps this Sûtra, the veritable law, will fathom the mystery of the highest man; will soon comprehend what truth it was that was arrived at on the terrace of enlightenment.

11. The quickness of his apprehension will be unlimited; like the wind he will nowhere meet impediments; he knows the purport and interpretation of the law, he who keeps this exalted Sûtra.

12. He will, after some reflection, always find out the connection of the Sûtras spoken by the leaders; even after the complete extinction of the leader he will grasp the real meaning of the Sûtras.

13. He resembles the moon and the sun; he illuminates all around him, and while roaming the earth in different directions he rouses many Bodhisattvas.

14. The wise Bodhisattvas who, after hearing the enumeration of such advantages, shall keep this Sûtra after my complete extinction will doubtless reach enlightenment.

CHAPTER XIX SADÂPARIBHÛTA

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The Lord then addressed the Bodhisattva Mahisattva Mahâsthâmaprâpta. In a similar way, Mahâsthâmaprâpta, one may infer from what has been said that he who rejects such a Dharmaparyâya as this, who abuses monks, nuns, lay devotees male or female, keeping this Sûtra, insults them, treats them with false and harsh words, shall experience dire results, to such an extent as is impossible to express in words. But those that keep, read, comprehend, teach, amply expound it to others, shall experience happy results, such as I have already mentioned: they shall attain such a perfection of the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind as just described.

In the days of yore, Mahâsthâmaprâpta, at a past period, before incalculable Æons, nay, more than incalculable, immense, inconceivable, and even long before, there appeared in the world a Tathâgata, &c., named Bhîshmagargitasvararâga, endowed with science and conduct, a Sugata, &c. &c., in the Æon Vinirbhoga, in the world Mahâsambhava. Now, Mahâsthâmaprâpta, that Lord Bhîshmagargitasvararâga, the Tathâgata, &c., in that world Vinirbhoga, showed the law in the presence of the world, including gods, men, and demons; the law containing the four noble truths and starting from the chain of causes and efferts, tending to overcome birth, decrepitude, sickness, death, sorrow, lamentation, woe, grief, despondency, and finally leading to Nirvâna, he showed to the disciples; the law connected with the six Perfections of virtue and terminating in the knowledge of the Omniscient, after the attainment of supreme, perfect enlightenment, he showed to the Bodhisattvas. The lifetime of that Lord Bhîshmagargitasvararâga, the Tathâgata, &c., lasted forty hundred thousand myriads of kotis of Æons equal to the sands of the river Ganges. After his complete extinction his true law remained hundred thousands of myriads of kotis of Æons equal to the atoms (contained) in Gambudvîpa, and the counterfeit of the true law continued hundred thousands of myriads of kotis of Æons equal to the dust-atoms in the four continents. When the counterfeit of the true law of the Lord Bhîshmagargitasvararâga, the Tathâgata, &c., after his complete extinction, had disappeared in the world Mahâsambhava, Mahâsthâmaprâpta, another Tathâgata Bhîshmagargitasvararâga, Arhat, &c., appeared, endowed with science and conduct. So in succession, Mahâsthâmaprâpta, there arose in that world Mahâsambhava twenty hundred thousand myriads of kotis of Tathâgatas, &c., called Bhîshmagargitasvararâga. At the time, Mahâsthâmaprâpta, after the complete extinction of the first Tathâgata amongst all those of the name of Bhîshmagargitasvararâga, Tathâgata, &c., endowed with science and conduct, &c. &c., when his true law had disappeared and the counterfeit of the true law was fading; when the reign (of the law) was being oppressed by proud monks, there was a monk, a Bodhisattva Mahâsattva, called Sadâparibhûta. For what reason, Mahâsthâmaprâpta, was that Bodhisattva Mahâsattva called Sadâparibhûta? It was, Mahâsthâmaprâpta, because that Bodhisattva Mahâsattva was in the habit of exclaiming to every monk or nun, male or female lay devotee, while approaching them: I do not contemn you, worthies. You deserve no contempt, for you all observe the course of duty of Bodhisattvas and are to become Tath.âgatas, &c. In this way, Mahâsthâmaprâpta, that Bodhisattva Mahâsattva, when a monk, did not teach nor study; the only thing he did was, whenever he descried from afar a monk or nun, a male or female lay devotee, to approach them and exclaim: I do not contemn you, sisters. You deserve no contempt, for you all observe the course of duty of Bodhisattvas and are to become Tathâgatas, &c. So, Mahâsthâmaprâpta, the Bodhisattva Mahâsattva at that time used to address every monk or nun, male or female devotee. But all were extremely irritated and angry at it, showed him their displeasure, abused and insulted him: Why does he, unasked, declare that he feels no contempt for us? just by so doing he shows a contempt for us. He renders himself contemptible by predicting our future destiny to supreme, perfect enlightenment; we do not care for what is not true. Many years, Mahâsthâmaprâpta, went on during which that Bodhisattva Mahâsattva was being abused, but he was not angry at anybody, nor felt malignity, and to those who, when he addressed them in the said manner, cast a clod or stick at him, he loudly exclaimed from afar: I do not contemn you. Those monks and nuns, male and female lay devotees, being always and ever addressed by him in that phrase gave him the (nick)name of Sadâparibhûta.

Under those circumstances, Mahâsthâmaprâpta, the Bodhisattva Mahâsattva Sadâparibhûta happened to hear this Dharmaparyâya of the Lotus of the True Law when the end of his life was impending, and the moment of dying drawing near. It was the Lord Bhîshmagargitasvararâga, the Tathâgata, &c., who expounded this Dharmaparyâya in twenty times twenty hundred thousand myriads of kotis of stanzas, which the Bodhisattva Mahâsattva Sadâparibhûta heard from a voice in the sky, when the time of his death was near at hand. On hearing that voice from the sky, without there appearing a person speaking, he grasped this Dharmaparyâya and obtained the perfections already mentioned: the perfection of sight, hearing, smell, taste, body, and mind. With the attainment of these perfections he at the same time made a vow to prolong his life for twenty hundred thousand myriads of kotis of years, and promulgated this Dharmaparyâya of the Lotus of the True Law. And all those proud beings, monks, nuns, male and female lay devotees to whom he had said: I do not contemn you, and who had given him the name of Sadâparibhûta, became all his followers to hear the law, after they had seen the power and strength of his sublime magic faculties, of his vow, of his readiness of wit, of his wisdom. All those and many hundred thousand myriads of kotis of other beings were by him roused to supreme, perfect enlightenment.

Afterwards, Mahâsthamaprâpta, that Bodhisattva Mahâsattva disappeared from that place and propitiated twenty hundred kotis of Tathâgatas, &c., all bearing the same name of Kandraprabhâsvararâga, under all of whom he promulgated this Dharmaparyâya. By virtue of his previous root of goodness he, in course of time, propitiated twenty hundred thousand myriads of kotis of Tathâgatas, &c., all bearing the name of Dundubhisvararâga, and under all he obtained this very Dharmaparyâya of the Lotus of the True Law and promulgated it to the four classes. By virtue of his previous root of goodness he again, in course of time, propitiated twenty hundred thousand myriads of kotis of Tathâgatas, &c., all bearing the name of Meghasvararâga, and under all he obtained this very Dharmaparyâya of the Lotus of the True Law and promulgated it to the four classes. And under all of them he was possessed of the afore-mentioned perfectness of sight, hearing, smell, taste, body, and mind.

Now, Mahâsthâmaprâpta, that Bodhisattva Mahâsattva Sadâparibhûta, after having honoured, respected, esteemed, worshipped, venerated, revered so many hundred thousand myriads of kotis of Tathâgatas, and after having acted in the same way towards many hundred thousand myriads of kotis of other Buddhas, obtained under all of them this very Dharmaparyâya of the Lotus of the True Law, and owing to his former root of goodness having come to full development, gained supreme, perfect enlightenment. Perhaps, Mahâsthâmaprâpta, thou wilt have some doubt, uncertainty, or misgiving, and think that he who at that time, at that juncture was the Bodhisattva Mahâsattva called Sadâparibhûta was one, and he who under the rule of that Lord Bhishmagargitasvararâga, the Tathâgata, &c., was generally called Sadâparibhûta by the four classes, by whom so many Tathâgatas were propitiated, was another. But thou shouldst not think so. For it is myself who at that time, at that juncture was the Bodhisattva Mahâsattva Sadâparibhûta. Had I not formerly grasped and kept this Dharmaparyâya, Mahâsthâmaprâpta, I should not so soon have arrived at supreme, perfect enlightenment. It is because I have kept, read, preached this Dharmaparyâya (derived) from the teaching of the ancient Tathâgatas, &c., Mahâsthâmaprâpta, that I have so soon arrived at supreme, perfect enlightenment. As to the hundreds of monks, nuns, male and female lay devotees, Mahâsthâmaprâpta, to whom under that Lord the Bodhisattva Mahâsattva Sadâparibhûta promulgated this Dharmaparyâya by saying: I do not contemn you; you all observe the course of duty of Bodhisattvas; you are to become Tathâgatas, &c., and in whom awoke a feeling of malignity towards that Bodhisattva, they in twenty hundred thousand myriads of kotis of .Æons never saw a Tathâgata, nor heard the call of the law, nor the call of the assembly, and for ten thousand Æons they suffered terrible pain in the great hell Avîki. Thereafter released from the ban, they by the instrumentality of that Bodhisattva Mahâsattva were all brought to full ripeness for supreme, perfect enlightenment. Perhaps, Mahâsthâmaprâpta, thou wilt have some doubt, uncertainty, or misgiving as to who at that time, at that juncture were the persons hooting and laughing at the Bodhisattva Mahâsattva. They are, in this very assembly, the five hundred Bodhisattvas headed by Bhadrapâla, the five hundred nuns following Simhakandrâ, the five hundred lay devotees following Sugataketanâ,who all of them have been rendered inflexible in supreme, perfect enlightenment. So greatly useful it is to keep and preach this Dharmaparyâya, as it tends to result for Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas in supreme, perfect enlightenment. Hence, Mahâsthâmaprapta, the Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas should, after the complete extinction of the Tathâgata, constantly keep, read, and promulgate this Dharmaparyâya.

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the following stanzas:

1. I remember a past period, when king Bhîshmasvara, the Gina, lived, very mighty, and revered by gods and men, the leader of men, gods, goblins, and giants.

2. At the time succeeding the complete extinction of that Gina, when the decay of the true law was far advanced, there was a monk, a Bodhisattva, called by the name of Sadâparibhûta.

3. Other monks and nuns who did not believe but in what they saw, he would approach (and say): I never am to contemn you, for you observe the course leading to supreme enlightenment.

4. It was his wont always to utter those words, which brought him but abuse and taunts from their part. At the time when his death was impending he heard this Sûtra.

5. The sage, then, did not expire; he resolved upon a very long life, and promulgated this Sûtra under the rule of that leader.

6. And those many (persons) who only acknowledged the evidence of sensual perception were by him brought to full ripeness for enlightenment. Then, disappearing from that place, he propitiated thousands of kotis of Buddhas.

7. Owing to the successive good actions performed by him, and to his constantly promulgating this Sûtra, that son of Gina reached enlightenment. That Bodhisattva then is myself, Sâkyamuni.

8. And those persons who only believed in perception by the senses, those monks, nuns, male and female lay devotees who by the sage were admonished of enlightenment,

9. And who have seen many kotis of Buddhas, are the monks here before me,-no less than five hundred,-nuns, and female lay devotees.

10. All of them have been by me brought to complete ripeness, and after my extinction they will all, full of wisdom, keep this Sûtra.

11. Not once in many, inconceivably many kotis of Æons has such a Sûtra as this been heard. There are, indeed, hundreds of kotis of Buddhas, but they do not elucidate this Sûtra.

12. Therefore let one who has heard this law exposed by the Self-born himself, and who has repeatedly propitiated him, promulgate this Sûtra after my extinction in this world.

CHAPTER XVIII THE ADVANTAGES OF A RELIGIOUS PREACHER

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The Lord then addressed the Bodhisattva Mahâsattva Satatasamitâbhiyukta (i.e. ever and constantly strenuous). Any one, young man of good family, who shall keep, read, teach, write this Dharmaparyâya or have it written, let that person be a young man of good family or a young lady, shall obtain eight hundred good qualities of the eye, twelve hundred of the ean, eight hundred of the nose, twelve hundred of the tongue, eight hundred of the body, twelve hundred of the mind. By these many hundred good qualities the whole of the six organs shall be perfect, thoroughly perfect. By means of the natural, carnal eye derived from his parents being perfect, he shall see the whole triple universe, outwardly and inwardly, with its mountains and woody thickets, down to the great hell Avîki and up to the extremity of existence. All that he shall see with his natural eye, as well as the creatures to be found in it, and he shall know the fruit of their works.

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the following stanzas:

1. Hear from me what good qualities shall belong to him who unhesitatingly and undismayed shall preach this Sûtra to the congregated assembly.

2. First, then, his eye (or, organ of vision) shall possess eight hundred good qualities by which it shall be correct, clear, and untroubled.

With the carnal eye derived from his parents he shall see the whole world from within and without.

4. He shall see the Meru and Sumeru, all the horizon and other mountains, as well as the seas.

5. He, the hero, sees all, downward to the Avîki and upward to the extremity of existence. Such is his carnal eye.

6. But he has not yet got the divine eye, it having not yet been produced in him; such as here described is the range of his carnal eye.

Further, Satatasamitâbhiyukta, the young man of good family or the young lady who proclaims this Dharmaparyâya and preaches it to others, is possessed of the twelve hundred good qualities of the ear. The various sounds that are uttered in the triple universe, downward to the great hell Avîki and upward to the extremity of existence, within and without, such as the sounds of horses, elephants, cows, peasants, goats. cars; the sounds of weeping and wailing; of horror, of conch-trumpets, bells, tymbals; of playing and singing; of camels, of tigers; of women, men, boys, girls; of righteousness (piety) and unrighteousness (impiety); of pleasure and pain; of ignorant men and âryas; pleasant and unpleasant sounds; sounds of gods, Nâgas, goblins, Gandharvas, demons, Garudas, Kinnaras, great serpents, men, and beings not human; of monks, disciples, Pratyekabuddhas, Bodhisattvas, and Tathâgatas; as many sounds as are uttered in the triple world, within and without, all those he hears with his natural organ of hearing when perfect. Still he does not enjoy the divine ear, although he apprehends the sounds of those different creatures, understands, discerns the sounds of those different creatures, and when with his natural organ of hearing he hears the sounds of those creatures, his ear is not overpowered by any of those sounds. Such, Satatasamitâbhiyukta, is the organ of hearing that the Bodhisattva Mahâsattva acquires; yet he does not possess the divine ear.

Thus spoke the Lord; thereafter he, the Sugata, the Master, added:

7. The organ of hearing of such a person becomes (or, is) cleared and perfect, though as yet it be natural; by it he perceives the various sounds, without any exception, in this world.

8. He perceives the sounds of elephants, horses, cars, cows, goats, and sheep; of noisy kettle-drums, tabours, lutes, flutes, Vallaki-lutes.

9. He can hear singing, lovely and sweet, and, at the same time, is constant enough not to allow himself to be beguiled by it; he perceives the sounds of kotis of men, whatever and wherever they are speaking.

10. He, moreover, always hears the voice of gods and Nâgas; he hears the tunes, sweet and affecting, of song, as well as the voices of men and women, boys and girls.

11. He hears the cries of the denizens of mountains and glens; the tender notes of Kalavinkas, cuckoos, pea fowls, pheasants, and other birds.

12. He also (hears) the heart-rending cries of those who are suffering pains in the hells, and the yells uttered by the Spirits, vexed as they are by the difficulty to get food;

13. Likewise the different cries produced by the demons and the inhabitants of the ocean. All these sounds the preacher is able to hear from his place on earth, without being overpowered by them.

14. From where he is stationed here on the earth he also hears the different and multifarious sounds through which the inhabitants of the realm of brutes are conversing with each other.

15. He apprehends all the sounds, without any exception, whereby the numerous angels living in the Brahma-world, the Akanishthas and Âbhâsvaras, call one another.

16. He likewise always hears the sound which the monks on earth are raising when engaged in reading, and when preaching the law to congregations, after having taken orders under the command of the Sugatas.

17. And when the Bodhisattvas here on earth have a reading together and raise their voices in the general synods, he hears them severally.

18. The Bodhisattva who preaches this Stara shall, at one time, also hear the perfect law 2 that the Lord Buddha, the tamer of men, announces to the assemblies.

19. The numerous sounds produced by all beings in the triple world, in this field, within and without, (downward) to the Avîki and upward to the extremity of existence, are heard by him.

20. (In short), he perceives the voices of all beings, his ear being open. Being in the possession of his six senses, he will discern the different sources (of sound), and that while his organ of hearing is the natural one;

21. The divine ear is not yet operating in him; his ear continues in its natural state. Such as here told are the good qualities belonging to the wise man who shall be a keeper of this Sûtra.

Further, Satatasamitâbhiyukta, the Bodhisattva Mahâsattva who keeps, proclaims, studies, writes this Dharmaparyâya becomes possessed of a perfect organ of smell with eight hundred good qualities. By means of that organ he smells the different smells that are found in the triple world, within and without, such as fetid smells, pleasant and unpleasant smells, the fragrance of diverse flowers, as the greatflowered jasmine, Arabian jasmine, Michelia Chainpaka, trumpet-flower; likewise the different scents of aquatic flowers, as the blue lotus, red lotus, white esculent water-lily and white lotus. He smells the odour of fruits and blossoms of various trees bearing fruits and blossoms, such as sandal, Xanthochymus, Tabernæmontana, agallochum. The manifold hundred-thousand mixtures of perfumes he smells and discerns, without moving from his standing-place. He smells the diverse smells of creatures, as elephants, horses, cows, goats, beasts, as well as the smell issuing from the body of various living beings in the condition of brutes. He perceives the smells exhaled by the body of women and men, of boys and girls. He smells, even from a distance, the odour of grass, bushes, herbs, trees. He perceives those smells such as they really are, and is not surprised nor stunned by them. Staying on this very earth he smells the odour of gods and the fragrance of celestial flowers, such as Erythrina, Bauhinia, Mandârava and great Mandârava, Mañgûsha and great Mañgûsha. He smells the perfume of the divine powders of sandal and agallochum, as well as that of the hundred-thousands of mixtures of different divine flowers. He smells the odour exhaled by the body of the gods, such as Indra, the chief of the gods, and thereby knows whether (the god) is sporting, playing, and enjoying himself in his palace Vaigayanta or is speaking the law to the gods of paradise in the assembly-hall of the gods, Sudharmâ, or is resorting to the pleasure-park for sport. He smells the odour proceeding from the body of the sundry other gods, as well as that proceeding from the girls and wives of the gods, from the youths and maidens amongst the gods, without being surprised or stunned by those smells. He likewise smells the odour exhaled by the bodies of all Devanikâyas, Brahmakâyikas, and Mahâbrahmas. In the same manner he perceives the smells coming from disciples, Pratyekabuddhas, Bodhisattvas, and Tathâgatas. He smells the odour arising from the seats of the Tathâgatas and so discovers where those Tathâgatas, Arhats, &c. abide. And by none of all those different smells is his organ of smell hindered, impaired, or vexed; and, if required, he may give an account of those smells to others without his memory being impaired by it.

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the following stanzas:

22. His organ of smell is quite correct, and he perceives the manifold and various smells, good or bad, which exist in this world;

23. The fragrance of the great-flowered jasmine, Arabian jasmine, Xanthochymus, sandal, agallochum, of several blossoms and fruits.

24. He likewise perceives the smells exhaled by men, women, boys, and girls, at a considerable distance, and by the smell he knows where they are.

25. He recognises emperors, rulers of armies, governors of provinces, as well as royal princes and ministers, and all the ladies of the harem by their (peculiar) scent.

26. It is by the odour that the Bodhisattva discovers sundry jewels of things, such as are found on the earth and such as serve as jewels for women.

27. That Bodhisattva likewise knows by the odour the various kinds of ornament that women use for their body, robes, wreaths, and ointments.

28. The wise man who keeps this exalted Sûtra recognises, by the power of a good-smelling organ, a woman standing, sitting, or lying; he discovers wanton sport and magic power.

29. He perceives at once where he stands, the fragrance of scented oils, and the different odours of flowers and fruits, and thereby knows from what source the odour proceeds.

30. The discriminating man recognises by the odour the numerous sandal-trees in full blossom in the glens of the mountains, as well as all creatures dwelling there.

31. All the beings living within the compass of the horizon or dwelling in the depth of the sea or in the bosom of the earth the discriminating man knows how to distinguish from the (peculiar) smell.

32. He discerns the gods and demons, and the daughters of demons; he discovers the sports of demons and their luxury. Such, indeed, is the power of his organ of smell.

33. By the smell he tracks the abodes of the quadrupeds in the woods, lions, tigers, elephants, snakes, buffaloes, cows, gayals.

34. He infers from the odour, whether the child that women, languid from pregnancy, bear in the womb be a boy or a girl.

35. He can discern if a woman is big with a dead child; he discerns if she is subject to throes, and, further, if a woman, the pains being removed, shall be delivered of a healthy boy.

36. He guesses the various designs of men, he smells (so to say) an air of design; he finds out the odour of passionate, wicked, hypocritical, or quiet persons.

37. That Bodhisattva by the scent smells treasures hidden in the ground, money, gold, bullion, silver, chests, and metal pots.

38. Necklaces of two sorts, gems, pearls, nice priceless jewels he knows by the scent, as well as things priceless and brilliant in general.

39. That great man from his very place on earth smells the flowers here above (in the sky) with the gods, such as Mandâravas, Mañgûshakas, and those growing on the coral tree.

40. By the power of his organ of smell he, without leaving his stand on earth, perceives how and whose are the aerial cars, of lofty, low, and middling size, and other brilliant forms shooting (through the firmament).

41. He likewise finds out the paradise, the gods (in the hall) of Sudharmâ and in the most glorious palace of Vaigayanta, and the angels who there are diverting themselves.

42. He perceives, here on earth, an air of them; by the scent he knows the angels, and where each of them is acting, standing, listening, or walking.

43. That Bodhisattva tracks by the scent the houris who are decorated with many flowers, decked with wreaths and ornaments and in full attire; he knows wherever they are dallying or staying at the time.

44. By smell he apprehends the gods, Brahmas, and Brahmakâyas moving on aerial cars aloft, upwards to the extremity of existence; he knows whether they are absorbed in meditation or have risen from it.

45. He perceives the Âbhâsvara angels falling (and shooting) and appearing, even those that he never saw before. Such is the organ of smell of the Bodhisattva who keeps this Sûtra.

46. The Bodhisattva also recognises all monks under the rule of the Sugata, who are strenuously engaged in their walks and find their delight in their lessons and reading.

47. Intelligent as he is, he discerns those among the sons of Gina who are disciples and those who used to live at the foot of trees, and he knows that the monk so and so is staying in such and such a place.

48. The Bodhisattva knows by the odour whether other Bodhisattvas are of good memory, meditative, delighting in their lessons and reading, and assiduous in preaching to congregations.

49. In whatever point of space the Sugata, the great Seer, so benign and bounteous, reveals the law in the midst of the crowd of attending disciples, the Bodhisattva by the odour recognises him as the Lord of the universe.

50. Staying on earth, the Bodhisattva also perceives those beings who hear the law and rejoice at it, and the whole assembly of the Gina.

51. Such is the power of his organ of smell. Yet it is not the divine organ he possesses, but (the natural one) prior to the perfect, divine faculty of smell.

Further, Satatasamitâbhiyukta, the young man of good family or the young lady who keeps, teaches, proclaims, writes this Dharmaparyâya shall have an organ of taste possessed of twelve hundred good faculties of the tongue. All flavours he takes on his tongue will yield a divine, exquisite relish. And he tastes in such a way that he is not to relish anything unpleasant; and even the unpleasant flavours that are taken on his tongue will yield a divine relish. And whatever he shall preach in the assembly, the creatures will be satisfied by it; they will be content, thoroughly content, filled with delight. A sweet, tender, agreeable, deep voice goes out from him, an amiable voice which goes to the heart, at which those creatures will be ravished and charmed; and those to whom he preaches, after having heard his sweet voice, so tender and melodious, will, even (if they are) gods, be of opinion that they ought to go and see, venerate, and serve him. And the angels and houris will be of opinion, &c. The Indras, Brahmas, and Brahmakayikas will be of opinion, &c. The Nâgas and Nâga girls will be of opinion, &c. The demons and their girls will be of opinion, &c. The Garudas and their girls will be of opinion, &c. The Kinnaras and their girls, the great serpents and their girls, the goblins and their girls, the imps and their girls will be of opinion that they ought to go and see, venerate, serve him, and hear his sermon, and all will show him honour, respect, esteem, worship, reverence, and veneration. Monks and nuns, male and female lay devotees will likewise be desirous of seeing him. Kings, royal pyinces, and grandees (or ministers) will also be desirous of seeing him. Kings ruling armies and emperors possessed of the seven treasures, along with the princes royal, ministers, ladies of the harem, and their retinue will be desirous of seeing him and paying him their homage. So sweet will be the speech delivered by that preacher, so truthful and according to the teaching of the Tathâgata will be his words. Others also, Brahmans and laymen, citizens and peasants, will always and ever follow that preacher till the end of life. Even the disciples of the Tathâgata will be desirous of seeing him; likewise the Pratyekabuddhas and the Lords Buddhas. And wherever that young man of good family or young lady shall stay, there he (or she) will preach, the face turned to the Tathâgata, and he (or she) will be a worthy vessel of the Buddha-qualities. Such, so pleasant, so deep will be the voice of the law going out from him.

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the following stanzas:

52. His organ of taste is most excellent, and he will never relish anything of inferior flavour; the flavours are no sooner put on his tongue than they become divine and possessed of a divine taste.

53. He has a tender voice and delivers sweet words, pleasant to hear, agreeable, charming; in the midst of the assembly lie is used to speak with a melodious and deep voice.

54. And whosoever hears him when he is delivering a sermon with myriads of kotis of examples, feels a great joy and shows him an immense veneration.

55. The gods, Nâgas, demons, and goblins always long to see him, and respectfully listen to his preaching. All those good qualities are his.

56. If he would, he might make his voice heard by the whole of this world; his voice is (so) fine, sweet, deep, tender, and winning.

57. The emperors on earth, along with their children and wives, go to him with the purpose of honouring him, and listen all the time to his sermon with joined hands.

58. He is constantly followed by goblins, crowds of Nâgas, Gandharvas, imps, male and female, who honour, respect, and worship him.

59. Brahma himself becomes his obedient servant; the gods Îsvara and Mahesvara, as well as Indra and the numerous heavenly nymphs, approach him.

60. And the Buddhas, benign and merciful for the world, along with their disciples, hearing his voice, protect him by showing their face, and feel satisfaction in hearing him preaching.

Further, Satatasamitâbhiyukta, the Bodhisattva Mahâsattva who keeps, reads, promulgates, teaches, writes this Dharmaparyâya shall have the eight hundred good qualities of the body. It will be pure, and show a hue clear as the lapis lazuli ; it will be pleasant to see for the creatures. On that perfect body he will see the whole triple universe; the beings who in the triple world disappear and appear, who are low or lofty, of good or of bad colour, in fortunate or in unfortunate condition, as well as the beings dwelling within the circular plane of the horizon and of the great horizon, on the chief mountains Meru and Sumeru, and the beings dwelling below in the Avîki and upwards to the extremity of existence; all of them he will see on his own body. The disciples, Pratyekabuddhas, Bodhisattvas, and Tathâgatas dwelling in the triple universe, and the law taught by those Tathâgatas and the beings serving the Tathâgatas, he will see all of them on his own body, because he receives the proper body of all those beings, and that on account of the perfectness of his body.

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the following stanzas:

61. His body becomes thoroughly pure, clear as if consisting of lapis lazuli; he who keeps this sublime Sûtra is always a pleasant sight for (all) creatures.

62. As on the surface of a mirror an image is seen, so on his body this world. Being self-born, he sees no other beings. Such is the perfectness of his body.

63. Indeed, all beings who are in this world, men, gods, demons, goblins, the inhabitants of hell, the spirits, and the brute creation are seen reflected on that body.

64. The aerial cars of the gods up to the extremity of existence, the rocks, the ridge of the horizon, the Himâlaya, Sumeru, and great Meru, all are seen on that body.

65. He also sees the Buddhas on his body, along with the disciples and other sons of Buddha; likewise the Bodhisattvas who lead a solitary life, and those who preach the law to congregations.

66. Such is the perfectness of his body, though he has not yet obtained a divine body; the natural property of his body is such.

Further, Satatasamitâbhiyukta, the Bodhisattva Mahâsattva who after the complete extinction of the Tathâgata keeps, teaches, writes, reads this Dharmaparyâya shall have a mental organ possessed of twelve hundred good qualities of intellect. By this perfect mental organ he will, even if he hears a single stanza, recognise its various meanings. By fully comprehending the stanza he will find in it the text to preach upon for a month, for four months, nay, for a whole year. And the sermon he preaches will not fade from his memory. The popular maxims of common life, whether sayings or counsels, he will know how to reconcile with the rules of the law. Whatever creatures of this triple universe are subject to the mundane whirl, in any of the six conditions of existence, he will know their thoughts, doings, and movements. He will know and discern their motions, purposes, and aims. Though he has not yet attained the state of an Ârya, his intellectual organ will be thoroughly perfect. And all he shall preach after having pondered on the interpretation of the law will be really true; he speaks what all Tathâgatas have spoken, all that has been declared in the Sûtras of former Ginas.

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the following stanzas:

67. His mental organ is perfect, lucid, right, and untroubled. By it he finds out the various laws, low, high, and mean.

68. On hearing the contents of a single stanza, the wise man catches the manifold significations (hidden) in it, and he is able for a month, four months, or even a year to go on expounding both its conventional and its true sense.

69. And the beings living in this world, within or without, gods, men, demons, goblins, Nâgas, brutes,

70. The beings stationed in any of the six conditions of existence, all their thoughts the sage knows instantaneously. These are the advantages of keeping this Sûtra.

71. He also hears the holy sound of the law which the Buddha, marked with a hundred blessed signs, preaches all over the world, and he catches what the Buddha speaks.

72. He reflects much on the supreme law, and is in the wont of constantly dilating upon it; he is never hesitating. These are the advantages of keeping this Sûtra.

73. He knows the connections and knots; he discerns in all laws contrarieties; he knows the meaning and the interpretations, and expounds them according to his knowledge.

74. The Sûtra which since so long a time has been expounded by the ancient Masters of the world is the law which he, never flinching, is always preaching in the assembly.

75. Such is the mental organ of him who keeps or reads this Sûtra; he has not yet the knowledge of emancipation, but one that precedes it.

76. He who keeps this Sûtra of the Sugata stands on the stage of a master; he may preach to all creatures and is skilful in kotis of interpretations.

CHAPTER XVII INDICATION OF THE MERITORIOUSNESS OF JOYFUL ACCEPTANCE

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Thereupon the Bodhisattva Mahâsattva Maitreya said to the Lord: O Lord, one who, after hearing this Dharmaparyâya being preached, joyfully I accepts it, be that person a young man of good family or a young lady, how much merit, O Lord, will be produced by such a young man or young lady of good family?

And on that occasion the Bodhisattva Mahâsattva Maitreya uttered this stanza:

1. How great will be the merit of him who, after the extinction of the great Hero, shall hear this exalted Sûtra and joyfully accept it?

And the Lord said to the Bodhisattva Mahâsattva Maitreya: If any one, Agita, either a young man of good family or a young lady, after the complete extinction of the Tathâgata, hears the preaching of this Dharmaparyayâ, let it be a monk or nun, a male or female lay devotee, a man of ripe understanding or a boy or girl; if the hearer joyfully accepts it, and then after the sermon rises up to go elsewhere, to a monastery, house, forest, street, village, town, or province, with the motive and express aim to expound the law such as he has understood, such as he has heard it, and according to the measure of his power, to another person, his mother, father, kinsman, friend, acquaintance, or any other person; if the latter, after hearing, joyfully accepts, and, in consequence, communicates it to another; if the latter, after hearing, joyfully accepts, and communicates it to another; if this other, again, after hearing, joyfully accepts it, and so on in succession until a number of fifty is reached; then, Agita, the fiftieth person to hear and joyfully accept the law so heard, let it be a young man of good family or a young lady, will have acquired an accumulation of merit connected with the joyful acceptance, Agita, which I am going to indicate to thee. Listen, and take it well to heart; I will tell thee.

It is, Agita, as if the creatures existing in the four hundred thousand Asankhyeyas of worlds, in any of the six states of existence, born from an egg, from a womb, from warm humidity, or from metamorphosis, whether they have a shape or have not, be they conscious or unconscious, neither conscious nor unconscious, footless, two-footed, four-footed, or many-footed, as many beings as are contained in the world of creatures,-(as if) all those had flocked together to one place. Further, suppose some man appears, a lover of virtue, a lover of good, who gives to that whole body the pleasures, sports, amusements, and enjoyments they desire, like, and relish. He gives to each of them all Gambudvîpa for his pleasures, sports, amusements, and enjoyments; gives bullion, gold, silver, gems, pearls, lapis lazuli, conches, stones (?), coral, carriages yoked with horses, with bullocks, with elephants; gives palaces and towers. In this way, Agita, that master of munificence, that great master of munificence continues spending his gifts for fully eighty years. Then, Agita, that master of munificence, that great master of munificence reflects thus: All these beings have I allowed to sport and enjoy themselves, but now they are covered with wrinkles and grey-haired, old, decrepit, eighty years of age, and near the term of their life. Let me therefore initiate them in the discipline of the law revealed by the Tathâgata, and instruct them. Thereupon, Aota, the man exhorts all those beings, thereafter initiates them in the discipline of the law revealed by the Tathâgata, and makes them adopt it. Those beings learn the law from him, and in one moment, one instant, one bit of time, all become Srotaâpannas, obtain the fruit of the rank of Sakridâgâmin and of Anâgâmin, until they become Arhats, free from all imperfections, adepts in meditation, adepts in great meditation and in the meditation with eight emancipations. Now, what is thine opinion, Agita, will that master of munificence, that great master of munificence, on account of his doings, produce great merit, immense, incalculable merit? Whereupon the Bodhisattva Mahâsattva Maitreya said in reply to the Lord: Certainly, Lord; certainly, Sugata; that person, Lord, will already produce much merit on that account, because he gives to the beings all that is necessary for happiness; how much more then if he establishes them in Arhatship!

This said, the Lord spoke to the Bodhisattva Mahâsattva Maitreya as follows: I announce to thee, Agita, I declare to thee; (take) on one side the master of munificence, the great master of munificence, who produces merit by supplying all beings in the four hundred thousand Asanikhyeyas of worlds with all the necessaries for happiness and by establishing them in Arhatship; (take) on the other side the person who, ranking the fiftieth in the series of the oral tradition of the law, hears, were it but a single stanza, a single word, from this Dharmaparyâya and joyfully accepts it; if (we compare) the mass of merit connected with the joyful acceptance and the mass of merit connected with the charity of the master of munificence, the great master of munificence, then the greater merit will be his who, ranking the fiftieth in the series of the oral tradition of the law, after hearing were it but a single stanza, a single word, from this Dharmaparyâya, joyfully accepts it. Against this accumulation of merit, Agita, this accumulation of roots of goodness connected with that joyful acceptance, the former accumulation of merit connected with the charity of that master of munificence, that great master of munificence, and connected with the confirmation in Arhatship, does not fetch the 1/100 part, not the 1/100,000, not the 1/10,000,000 not the 1/1000,000,000 not the 1/1000 x 10,000,000 not the 1/100,000 x 10,000,000, not the 1/100,000 x 10,000 x 10,000,000 part; it admits of no calculation, no counting, no reckoning, no comparison, no approximation, no secret teaching. So immense, incalculable, Agita, is the merit which a person, ranking the fiftieth in the series of the tradition of the law, produces by joyfully accepting, were it but a single stanza, a single word, from this Dharmaparyâya; how much more then (will) he (produce), Agita, who hears this Dharmaparyâya in my presence and then joyfully accepts it? I declare, Agita, that his accumulation of merit shall be even more immense, more incalculable.

And further, Agita, if a young man of good family or a young lady, with the design to hear this discourse on the law, goes from home to a monastery, and there hears this Dharmaparyâya for a single moment, either standing or sitting, then that person, merely by the mass of merit resulting from that action, will after the termination of his (present) life, and at the time of his second existence when he receives (another) body, become a possessor of carriages yoked with bullocks, horses, or elephants, of litters, vehicles yoked with bulls, and of celestial aerial cars. If further that same person at that preaching sits down, were it but a single moment, to hear this Dharmaparyâya, or persuades another to sit down or shares with him his seat, he will by the store of merit resulting from that action gain seats of Indra, seats of Brahma, thrones of a Kakravartin. And, Agita, if some one, a young man of good family or a young lady, says to another person: Come, friend, and hear the Dharmaparyâya of the Lotus of the True Law, and if that other person owing to that exhortation is persuaded to listen, were it but a single moment, then the former will by virtue of that root of goodness, consisting in that exhortation, obtain the advantage of a connection with Bodhisattvas who have acquired Dhâranî. He will become the reverse of dull, will get keen faculties, and have wisdom; in the course of a hundred thousand existences he will never have a fetid mouth, nor an offensive one; he will have no diseases of the tongue, nor of the mouth; he will have no black teeth, no unequal, no yellow, no ill-ranged, no broken teeth, no teeth fallen out; his lips will not be pendulous, not turned inward, not gaping, not mutilated, not loathsome; his nose will not be flat, nor wry; his face will not be long, nor wry, nor unpleasant. On the contrary, Agita, his tongue, teeth, and lips will be delicate and wellshaped; his nose long; his face perfectly round; the eyebrows well-shaped; the forehead well-formed. He will receive a very complete organ of manhood. He will have the advantage that the Tathâgata renders sermons intelligible to him and soon come in connection with Lords, Buddhas. Mark, Agita, how much good is produced by one’s inciting were it but a single creature; how much more then by him who reverentially hears, reverentially reads, reverentially preaches, reverentially promulgates the law!

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the following stanzas:

2. Listen how great the merit is of one who, the fiftieth in the series (of tradition), hears a single stanza from this Sûtra and with placid mind joyfully adopts it.

3. Suppose there is a man in the habit of giving alms to myriads of kotis of beings, whom I have herebefore indicated by way of comparison’; all of them he satisfies during eighty years.

4. Then seeing that old age has approached for them, that their brow is wrinkled and their head grey (he thinks): Alas, how all beings come to decay! Let me therefore admonish them by (speaking of) the law.

5. He teaches them the law here on earth and points to the state of Nirvana hereafter. ‘All existences’ (he says) ‘are like a mirage; hasten to become disgusted with all existence.’

6. All creatures, by hearing the law from that charitable person, become at once Arhats, free from imperfections, and living their last life.

7. Much more merit than by that person will be acquired by him who through unbroken tradition shall hear were it but a single stanza and joyfully receive it. The mass of merit of the former is not even so much as a small particle of the latter’s.

8. So great will be one’s merit, endless, immeasurable, owing to one’s hearing merely a single stanza, in regular tradition; how much more then if one hears from face to face!

9. And if somebody exhorts were it but a single creature and says: Go, hear the law, for this Sûtra is rare in many myriads of kotis of Æons;

10. And if the creature so exhorted should hear the Sûtra even for a moment, hark what fruit is to result from that action. He shall never have a mouth disease;

11. His tongue is never sore; his teeth shall never fall out, never be black, yellow, unequal; his lips never become loathsome;

12. His face is not wry, nor lean, nor long; his nose not flat; it is well-shaped, as well as his forehead, teeth, lips, and round face.

13. His aspect is ever pleasant to men; his mouth is never fetid, it constantly emits a smell sweet as the lotus.

14. If some wise man, to hear this Sûtra, goes from his home to a monastery and there listen, were it but for a single moment, with a placid mind, hear what results from it.

15. His body is very fair; he drives with horsecarriages, that wise man, and is mounted on elevated carriages drawn by elephants and variegated with gems.

16. He possesses litters covered with ornaments and carried by numerous men. Such is the blessed fruit of his going to hear preaching.

17. Owing to the performance of that pious work he shall, when sitting in the assembly there, obtain seats of Indra, seats of Brahma, seats of kings.

CHAPTER XVI OF PIETY

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While this exposition of the duration of the Tathâgata’s lifetime was being given, innumerable, countless creatures profited by it. Then the Lord addressed the Bodhisattva Mahâsattva Maitreya: While this exposition of the duration of the Tathâgata’s lifetime was being given, Agita, sixty-eight hundred thousand myriads of kotis of Bodhisattvas, comparable to the sands of the Ganges, have acquired the faculty to acquiesce in the law that has no origin. A thousand times more Bodhisattvas Mahisattvas have obtained Dharanî [Dhârani usually denotes a magic spell, a talisman. Here and there it interchanges with dhâranâ, support, the bearing in mind, attention. The synonymous rakshâ embraces the meaning of talisman and protection, support. It is not easy to decide what is intended in the text]; and other Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas, equal to the dust atoms of one third of a macrocosm, have by hearing this Dharmaparyâya obtained the faculty of unhampered view. Other Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas again, equal to the dust atoms of two-third parts of a macrocosm, have by hearing this Dharmaparyâya obtained the Dhârani that makes hundred thousand kotis of revolutions. Again, other Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas, equal to the dust atoms of a whole macrocosm, have by hearing this Dharmaparyâya moved forward the wheel that never rolls back. Some Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas, equal to the dust atoms of a mean universe, have by hearing this Dharmaparyâya moved forward the wheel of spotless radiance. Other Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas, equal to the dust atoms of a small universe, have by hearing this Dharmaparyâya come so far that they will reach supreme, perfect enlightenment after eight births. Other Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas, equal to the dust atoms of four worlds of four continents, have by hearing this Dharmaparyâya become such as to require four births (more) before reaching supreme, perfect enlightenment. Other Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas, equal to the dust atoms of three four-continental worlds, have by hearing this Dharmaparyâya become such as to require three births (more) before reaching supreme, perfect enlightenment. Other Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas, equal to the dust atoms of two four-continental worlds, have by hearing this Dharmaparyâya become such as to require two births (more) before reaching supreme, perfect enlightenment. Other Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas, equal to the dust atoms of one fourcontinental world, have by hearing this Dharmaparyâya become such as to require but one birth before reaching supreme, perfect enlightenment. Other Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas, equal to the dust atoms of eight macrocosms consisting of three parts, have by hearing this Dharmaparyâya conceived the idea of supreme, perfect enlightenment.

No sooner had the Lord given this exposition determining the duration and periods of the law, than there fell from the upper sky a great rain of Mandârava and great Mandârava flowers that covered and overwhelmed all the hundred thousand myriads of kotis of Buddhas who were seated on their thrones at the foot of the jewel trees in hundred thousands of myriads of kotis of worlds. It also covered and overwhelmed the Lord Sâkyamuni, the Tathâgata, &c., and the Lord Prabhûtaratna, the Tathâgata, &c., the latter sitting fully extinct on his throne, as well as that entire host of Bodhisattvas and the four classes of the audience. A rain of celestial powder of sandal and agallochum. trickled down from the sky, whilst higher up in the firmament the great drums resounded, without being struck, with a pleasant, sweet, and deep sound. Double pieces of fine heavenly cloth fell down by hundreds and thousands from the upper sky; necklaces, halfnecklaces, pearl necklaces, gems, jewels, noble gems, and noble jewels were seen high in the firmament, hanging down from every side in all directions of space, while all around thousands of jewel censers, containing priceless, exquisite incense, were moving of their own accord. Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas were seen holding above each Tathâgata, high aloft, a row of jewel umbrellas stretching as high as the Brahma-world. So acted the Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas in respect to all the innumerable hundred thousands of myriads of kotis of Buddhas. Severally they celebrated these Buddhas in appropriate stanzas, sacred hymns in praise of the Buddhas.

And on that occasion the Bodhisattva Mahâsattva Maitreya uttered the followino, stanzas:

1. Wonderful is the law which the Sugata has expounded, the law we never heard before; how great the majesty of the Leaders is, and how infinite the duration of their life!

2. And on hearing such a law imparted by the Sugata from face to face, thousands of kotis of creatures, the genuine sons of the Leader of the world, have been pervaded with gladness.

3. Some have reached the point of supreme enlightenment from whence there is no return, others are standing on the lower stage; some have reached the standpoint of having an unhampered view, and others have obtained thousands of kotis of Dhâranis.

4. There are others, (as) atoms, who have reached supreme Buddha-knowledge. Some, again, will after eight births become Ginas seeing the infinite.

5. Among those who hear this law from the Master, some will obtain enlightenment and see the truth after four births, others after three, others after two.

6. Some among them will become all-knowing after one birth, in the next following existence. Such will be the perfect result of learning the duration of life of the Chief.

7. Innumerable, countless as the atoms of the eight fields, are the kotis of beings who by hearing this law have conceived the idea of superior enlightenment.

8. Such is the effect produced by the great Seer, when he reveals this Buddha-state that is endless and has no limit, which is as immense as the element of ether.

9. Many thousand kotis of angels, Indras, and Brahma-angels, like the sands of the Ganges, have flocked hither from thousands of kotis of distant fields and have poured a rain of Mandairavas.

10. They move in the sky like birds, and strew fragrant powder of sandal and agallochum, to cover ceremoniously the Chief of Ginas withal.

11 High aloft tymbals without being struck emit sweet sounds; thousands of kotis of white cloth whirl down upon the Chiefs.

12. Thousands of kotis of jewel censers of costly incense move of their own accord on every side to honour the mighty Lord of the world.

13. Innumerable wise Bodhisattvas hold myriads of kotis of umbrellas, elevated and made of noble jewels, like chaplets, up to the Brahma-world.

14. The sons of Sugata, in their great joy, have attached beautiful triumphal streamers at the top of the banner staffs in honour of the Leaders whom they celebrate in thousands of stanzas.

15. Such a marvellous, extraordinary, prodigious, splendid phenomenon, O Leader, is being displayed by all those beings who are gladdened by the exposition of the duration of life (of the Tathâgata).

16. Grand is the matter now (occurring) in the ten points of space, and (great) the sound raised by the Leaders; thousands of kotis of living beings are refreshed and gifted with virtue for enlightenment.

Thereupon the Lord addressed the Bodhisattva Mahâsattva Maitreya: Those beings, Agita, who during the exposition of this Dharmaparyâya in which the duration of the Tathâgata’s life is revealed have entertained, were it but a single thought of trust, or have put belief in it, how great a merit are they to produce, be they young men and young ladies of good family? Listen then, and mind it well, how great the merit is they shall produce. Let us suppose the case, Agita, that some young man or young lady of good family, desirous of supreme, perfect enlightenment, for eight hundred thousand myriads of kotis of Æons practises the five perfections of virtue (Pâramitâs), to wit, perfect charity in alms, perfect morality, perfect forbearance, perfect energy, perfect meditation-perfect wisdom being excepted; let us, on the other hand, suppose the case, Agita, that a young man or young lady of good family, on hearing this Dharmaparyâya containing the exposition of the duration of the Tathâgata’s life, conceives were it but a single thought of trust or puts belief in it; then that former accumulation of merit, that accumulation of good connected with the five perfections of virtue, (that accumulation) which has come to full accomplishment in eight hundred thousand myriads of kotis of Æons, does not equal one hundredth part of the accumulation of merit in the second case; it does not equal one thousandth part; it admits of no calculation, no counting, no reckoning, no comparison, no approximation, no secret teaching. One who is possessed of such an accumulation of merit, Agita, be he a young man or a young lady of good family, will not miss supreme, perfect enlightenment; no, that is not possible.

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the following stanzas:

17. Let a man who is seeking after this knowledge, superior Buddha-knowledge, undertake to practise in this world the five perfect virtues;

18. Let him, during eight thousand kotis of complete Æons, continue giving repeated alms to Buddhas and disciples;

19. Regaling Pratyekabuddhas and kotis of Bodhisattvas by giving meat, food and drink, clothing and lodging;

20. Let him build on earth refuges and monasteries of sandal-wood, and pleasant convent gardens provided with walks;

21. Let him after so bestowing gifts, various and diversified, during thousands of kotis of Æons, direct his mind to enlightenment;

22. Let him then, for the sake of Buddhaknowledge, keep unbroken the pure moral precepts which have been recommended by the perfect Buddhas and acknowledged by the wise;

23. Let him further develop the virtue of forbearance, be steady in the stage of meekness [i.e. of a monk under training.], be constant, of good memory, and patiently endure many censures;

24. Let him, moreover, for the sake of Buddha-knowledge, bear the contemptuous words of unbelievers who are rooted in pride;

25. Let him, always zealous, strenuous, studious, of good memory, without any other pre-occupation in his mind, practise meditation, during kotis of.Æons;

26. Let him, whether living in the forest or entering upon a vagrant life [i.e. a Yogin, a contemplative mystic.], go about, avoiding sloth and torpor, for kotis of Æons;

27. Let him as a philosopher, a great philosopher who finds his delight in meditation, in concentration of mind, pass eight thousand kotis of Æons;

28. Let him energetically pursue enlightenment with the thought of his reaching all-knowingness, and so arrive at the highest degree of meditation;

29. Then the merit accruing to those who practise the virtues oft described, during thousands of kotis of Æons,

30. (Is less than that of) a man or a woman who, on hearing the duration of my life, for a single moment believes in it; this merit is endless.

31. He who renouncing doubt, vacillation, and misgiving shall believe even for a short moment, shall obtain such a reward.

32. The Bodhisattvas also,who have practised those virtues during kotis of Æons, will not be startled at hearing of this inconceivably long life of mine.

33. They will bow their heads (and think): ‘May I also in future become such a one and release kotis of living beings!

34. ‘As the Lord Sâkyamuni, the Lion of the Sakya race, after he had occupied his seat on the terrace of enlightenment, raised his lion’s roar;

35. ‘So may I in future be sitting on the terrace of enlightenment, honoured by all mortals, to teach so long a life!’

36. Those who are possessed of firmness of intention and have learnt the principles, will understand the mystery and feel no uncertaint.

Again, Agita, he who after hearing this Dharmaparyâya, which contains an exposition of the duration of the Tathâgata’s life, apprehends it, penetrates and understands it, will produce a yet more immeasurable accumulation of merit conducive to Buddhaknowledge; unnecessary to add that he who hears such a Dharmaparyâya as this or makes others hear it; who keeps it in memory, reads, comprehends or makes others comprehend it; who writes or has it written, collects or has it collected into a volume, honours, respects, worships it with flowers, incense, perfumed garlands, ointments, powder, cloth, umbrellas, flags, streamers, (lighted) oil lamps, ghee lamps or lamps filled with scented oil, will produce a far greater accumulation of merit conducive to Buddha-knowledge.

And, Agita, as a test whether that young man or young lady of good family who hears this exposition of the duration of the Tathâgata’s life most decidedly believes in it may be deemed the following. They will behold me teaching the law I here on the Gridhrakûta, surrounded by a host of Bodhisattvas, attended by a host of Bodhisattvas, in the centre of the congregation of disciples. They will behold here my Buddha-field in the Saha-world, consisting of lapis lazuli and forming a level plain; forming a chequered board of eight compartments with gold threads; set off with jewel trees. They will behold the towers that the Bodhisattvas use as their abodes. By this test, Agita, one may know if a young man or young lady of good family has a most decided belief. Moreover, Agita, I declare that a young man of good family who, after the complete extinction of the Tathâgata, shall not reject, but joyfully accept this Dharmaparyâya when hearing it, that such a young man of good family also is earnest in his belief; far more one who keeps it in memory or reads it. He who after collecting this Dharmaparyâya into a volume carries it on his shoulder carries the Tathâgata on his shoulder. Such a young man or young lady of good family, Agita, need make no Stûpas for me, nor monasteries; need not give to the congregation of monks medicaments for the sick or (other) requisites [This agrees with the teaching of the Vedanta that Brahma-knowledge is independent of good works]. For, Agita, such a young man or young lady of good family has (spiritually) built for the worship of my relics Stûpas of seven precious substances reaching up to the Brahma-world in height, and with a circumference in proportion, with the umbrellas thereto belonging, with triumphal streamers, with tinkling bells and baskets; has shown manifold marks of respect to those Stûpas of relics with diverse celestial and earthly flowers, incense, perfumed garlands, ointments, powder, cloth, umbrellas, banners, flags, triumphal streamers, by various sweet, pleasant, clear-sounding tymbals and drums, by the tune, noise, sounds of musical instruments and castanets, by songs, nautch and dancing of different kinds, of many, innumerable kinds; has done those acts of worship during many, innumerable thousands of kotis of Æons. One who keeps in memory this Dharmaparyâya after my complete extinction, who reads, writes, promulgates it, Agita, shall also have built monasteries, large, spacious, extensive, made of red sandal-wood, with thirty-two pinnacles, eight stories, fit for a thousand monks, adorned with gardens and flowers, having walks furnished with lodgings, completely provided with meat, food and drink and medicaments for the sick, well equipped with all comforts. And those numerous, innumerable beings, say a hundred or a thousand or ten thousand or a koti or hundred kotis or thousand kotis or hundred thousand kotis or ten thousand times hundred thousand kotis, they must be considered to form the congregation of disciples seeing me from face to face, and must be considered as those whom I have fully blessed. He who, after my complete extinction, shall keep this Dharmaparyâya, read, promulgate, or write it, he, I repeat, Agita, need not build Stûpas of relics, nor worship the congregation; not necessary to tell, Agita, that the young man or young lady of good family who, keeping this Dharmaparyâya, shall crown it by charity in alms, morality, forbearance, energy, meditation, or wisdom, will produce a much greater accumulation of merit; it is, in fact, immense, incalculable, infinite. just as the element of ether, Agita, is boundless, to the east, south, west, north, beneath, above, and in the intermediate quarters, so immense and incalculable an accumulation of merit, conducive to Buddha-knowledge, will be produced by a young man or young lady of good family who shall keep, read, write, or cause to be written, this Dharmaparyâya. He will be zealous in worshipping the Tathâgata shrines; he will laud the disciples of the Tathâgata, praise the hundred thousands of myriads of kotis of virtues of the Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas, and expound them to others; he will be accomplished in forbearance, be moral, of good character, agreeable to live with, and tolerant, modest, not jealous of others, not wrathful, not vicious in mind, of good memory, strenuous and always busy, devoted to meditation in striving after the state of a Buddha, attaching great value to abstract meditation, frequently engaging in abstract meditation, able in solving questions and in avoiding hundred thousands of myriads of kotis of questions. Any Bodhisattva Mahâsattva, Agita, who, after the Tathâgata’s complete extinction, shall keep this Dharmaparyâya, will have the good qualities I have described. Such a young man or young lady of good family, Agita, must be considered to make for the terrace of enlightenment; that young man or young lady of good family steps towards the foot of the tree of enlightenment in order to reach enlightenment. And where that young man or young lady of good family, Agita, stands, sits, or walks, there one should make a shrine’, dedicated to the Tathâgata, and the world, including the gods, should say: This is a Stûpa of relics of the Tathâgata.

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the following stanzas:

37. An immense mass of merit, as I have repeatedly mentioned, shall be his who, after the complete extinction of the Leader of men, shall keep this Sûtra.

38. He will have paid worship to me, and built Stûpas of relics, made of precious substances, variegated, beautiful, and splendid;

39. In height coming up to the Brahma-world, with rows of umbrellas, great in circumference gorgeous, and decorated with triumphal streamers;

40. Resounding with the clear ring of bells, and decorated with silk bands, while jingles moved by the wind form another ornament at (the shrines of) Gina relics.

41. He will have shown great honour to them by flowers, perfumes, and ointments ; by music, clothes, and the repeated (sound of) tymbals.

42. He will have sweet musical instruments struck at those relics, and lamps with scented oil kept burning all around.

43. He who at the period of depravation shall keep and teach this Sûtra, he will have paid me such an infinitely varied worship.

44. He has built many kotis of excellent monasteries of sandal-wood, with thirty-two pinnacles, and eight terraces high;

45. Provided with couches, with food hard and soft; furnished with excellent curtains, and having cells by thousands.

46. He has given hermitages and walks embellished by flower-gardens; many elegant objects of various forms and variegated.

47. He has shown manifold worship to the host of disciples in my presence, he who, after my extinction, shall keep this Sûtra.

48. Let one be ever so good in disposition, much greater merit will he obtain who shall keep or write this Sûtra.

49. Let a man cause this to be written and have it well put together in a volume; let him always worship the volume with flowers, garlands, ointments.

50. Let him constantly place near it a lamp filled with scented oil, along with full-blown lotuses and suitable’ oblations of Michelia Champaka.

51. The man who pays such worship to the books will produce a mass of merit which is not to be measured.

52. Even as there is no measure of the element of ether, in none of the ten directions, so there is no measure of this mass of merit.

53. How much more will this be the case with one who is patient, meek, devoted, moral, studious, and addicted to meditation;

54. Who is not irascible, not treacherous, reverential towards the sanctuary, always humble towards monks, not conceited, nor neglectful;

55. Sensible and wise, not angry when he is asked a question; who, full of compassion for living beings, gives such instruction as suits them.

56. If there be such a man who (at the same time) keeps this Sûtra, he will possess a mass of merit that cannot be measured.

57. If one meets such a man as here described, a keeper of this Sûtra, one should do homage to him.

58. One should present him with divine flowers, cover him with divine clothes, and bow the head to salute his feet, in the conviction of his being a Tathâgata.

59. And at the sight of such a man one may directly make the reflection that he is going towards the foot of the tree to arrive at superior, blessed enlightenment for the weal of all the world, including the gods.

60. And wherever such a sage is walking, standing, sitting, or lying down; wherever the hero pronounces were it but a single stanza from this Sûtra;

61. There one should build a Stûpa for the most high of men, a splendid, beautiful (Stûpa), dedicated to the Lord Buddha, the Chief, and then worship it in manifold ways.

62. That spot of the earth has been enjoyed by myself; there have I walked myself, and there have I been sitting; where that son of Buddha has stayed, there I am.

CHAPTER XV DURATION OF LIFE OF THE TATHÂGATA

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Thereupon the Lord addressed the entire host of Bodhisattvas: Trust me, young men of good family, believe in the Tathâgata speaking a veracious word. A second time the Lord addressed the Bodhisattvas: Trust me, young gentlemen of good family, believe in the Tathâgata speaking a veracious word. A third and last time the Lord addressed the Bodhisattvas: Trust me, young men of good family, believe in the Tathâgata speaking a veracious word. Then the entire host of Bodhisattvas with Maitreya, the Bodhisattva Mahasattva at their head, stretched out the joined hands and said to the Lord: Expound this matter, O Lord; expound it, O Sugata; we will believe in the word of the Tathâgata. A second time the entire host, &c. &c. A third time the entire host, &c. &c.

The Lord, considering that the Bodhisattvas repeated their prayer up to three times, addressed them thus: Listen then, young men of good family. The force of a strong resolve which I assumed is such, young men of good family, that this world, including gods, men, and demons, acknowledges: Now has the Lord Sakyamuni, after going out from the home of the Sakyas, arrived at supreme, perfect enlightenment, on the summit of the terrace of enlightenment at the town of Gaya. But, young men of good family, the truth is that many hundred thousand myriads of kotis of Æons ago I have arrived at supreme, perfect enlightenment. By way of example, young men of good family, let there be the atoms of earth of fifty hundred thousand myriads of kotis of worlds; let there exist some man who takes one of those atoms of dust and then goes in an eastern direction fifty hundred thousand myriads of kotis of worlds further on, there to deposit that atom of dust; let in this manner the man carry away from all those worlds the whole mass of earth, and in the same manner, and by the same act as supposed, deposit all those atoms in an eastern direction. Now, would you think, young men of good family, that any one should be able to imagine, weigh, count, or determine (the number of) those worlds? The Lord having thus spoken, the Bodhisattva Mahasattva Maitreya and the entire host of Bodhisattvas replied: They are incalculable, O Lord, those worlds, countless, beyond the range of thought. Not even all the disciples and Pratyekabuddhas, O Lord, with their Ârya-knowledge, will be able to imagine, weigh, count, or determine them. For us also, O Lord, who are Bodhisattvas standing on the place from whence there is no turning back, this point lies beyond the sphere of our comprehension; so innumerable, O Lord, are those worlds.

This said, the Lord spoke to those Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas as follows: I announce to you, young men of good family, I declare to you: However numerous be those worlds where that man deposits those atoms of dust and where he does not, there are not, young men of good family, in all those hundred thousands of myriads of kolis of worlds so many dust atoms as there are hundred thousands of myriads of kotis of Æons since I have arrived at supreme, perfect enlightenment. From the moment, young men of good family, when I began preaching the law to creatures in this Saha-world and in hundred thousands of myriads of kotis of other worlds, and (when) the other Tathâgatas, Arhats, &c., such as the Tathâgata Dîpankara and the rest whom I have mentioned in the lapse of time (preached), (from that moment) have I, young men of good family, for the complete Nirvâna of those Tathâgatas, &c., created all that with the express view to skilfully preach the law. Again, young men of good family, the Tathâgata, considering the different degrees of faculty and strength of succeeding generations, reveals at each (generation) his own name, reveals a state in which Nirvâna has not yet been reached, and in different ways he satisfies the wants of (different) creatures through various Dharmaparyâyas . This being the case, young men of good family, the Tathâgata declares to the creatures, whose dispositions are so various and who possess so few roots of goodness, so many evil propensities: I am young of age, monks; having left my father’s home, monks, I have lately arrived at supreme, perfect enlightenment. When, however, the Tathâgata, who so long ago arrived at perfect enlightenment, declares himself to have but lately arrived at perfect enlightenment, he does so in order to lead creatures to full ripeness and make them go in. Therefore have these Dharmaparyâyas been revealed; and it is for the education of creatures, young men of good family, that the Tathâgata has revealed all Dharmaparyâyas. And, young men of good family, the word that the Tathâgata delivers on behalf of the education of creatures, either under his own appearance or under another’s, either on his own authority or under the mask of another, all that the Tathâgata declares, all those Dharmaparyâyas spoken by the Tathâgata are true. There can be no question of untruth from the part of the Tathâgata in this respect. For the Tathâgata sees the triple world as it really is: it is not born, it dies not; it is not conceived, it springs not into existence; it moves not in a whirl, it becomes not extinct; it is not real, nor unreal; it is not existing, nor non-existing; it is not such, nor otherwise, nor false. The Tathâgata sees the triple world, not as the ignorant, common people, he seeing things always present to him; indeed, to the Tathâgata, in his position, no laws are concealed. In that respect any word that the Tathâgata speaks is true, not false. But in order to produce the roots of goodness in the creatures, who follow different pursuits and behave according to different notions, he reveals various Dharmaparyâyas with various fundamental principles. The Tathâgata then, young men of good family, does what he has to do. The Tathâgata who so long ago was perfectly enlightened is unlimited in the duration of his life, he is everlasting. Without being extinct, the Tathâgata makes a show of extinction, on behalf of those who have to be educated. And even now, young gentlemen of good family, I have not accomplished my ancient Bodhisattvacourse, and the measure of my lifetime is not full. Nay, young men of good family, I shall yet have twice as many hundred thousand myriads of kotis of Æons before the measure of my lifetime be full. I announce final extinction, young men of good family, though myself I do not become finally extinct. For in this way, young men of good family, I bring (all) creatures to maturity, lest creatures in whom goodness is not firmly rooted, who are unholy, miserable, eager of sensual pleasures, blind and obscured by the film of wrong views, should, by too often seeing me, take to thinking: ‘The Tathâgata is staying’ and fancy that all is a child’s play; (lest they) by thinking ‘we are near that Tathâgata’ should fail to exert themselves in order to escape the triple world and not conceive how precious the Tathâgata is. Hence, young men of good family, the Tathdgata skilfully utters. these words: The apparition of the Tathâgatas, monks, is precious (and rare). For in the course of many hundred thousand myriads of kotis of Æons creatures may happen to see a Tathâgata or not to see him,. Therefore and upon that ground, young men of good family, I say: The apparition of the Tathâgatas, monks, is precious (and rare). By being more and more convinced of the apparition of the Tathâgatas being precious (or rare) they will feel surprised and sorry, and whilst not seeing the Tathâgata they will get a longing to see him. The good roots developing from their earnest thought relating to the Tathâgata will lastingly tend to their weal, benefit, and happiness; in consideration of which the Tathâgata announces final extinction, though he himself does not become finally extinct, on behalf of the creatures who have to be educated. Such, young men of good family, is the Tathâgata’s manner of teaching; when the Tathâgata speaks in this way, there is from his part no falsehood.

Let us suppose an analogous case, young men of good family. There is some physician, learned, intelligent, prudent, clever in allaying all sorts of diseases. That man has many sons, ten, twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, or a hundred. The physician once being abroad, all his children incur a disease from poison or venom. Overcome with the grievous pains caused by that poison or venom which burns them they lie rolling on the ground. Their father, the physician, comes home from his journey at the time when his sons are suffering from that poison or venom. Some of them have perverted notions, others have right notions, but all suffer the same pain. On seeing their father they cheerfully greet him and say: Hail, dear father, that thou art come back in safety and welfare! Now deliver us from our evil, be it poison or venom; let us live, dear father. And the physician, seeing his sons befallen with disease, overcome with pain and rolling on the ground, prepares a great remedy, having the required colour, smell, and taste, pounds it on a stone and gives it as a potion to his sons, with these words: Take this great remedy, my sons, which has the required colour, smell, and taste. For by taking this great remedy, my sons, you shall soon be rid of this poison or venom; you shall recover and be healthy. Those amongst the children of the physician that have right notions, after seeing the colour of the remedy, after smelling the smell and tasting the flavour, quickly take it, and in consequence of it are soon totally delivered from their disease. But the sons who have perverted notions cheerfully greet their father and say: Hail, dear father, that thou art come back in safety and welfare; do heal us. So they speak, but they do not take the remedy offered, and that because, owing to the perverseness of their notions, that remedy does not please them, in colour, smell, nor taste. Then the physician reflects thus: These sons of mine must have become perverted in their notions owing to this poison or venom, as they do not take the remedy nor hail me. Therefore will I by some able device induce these sons to take this remedy. Prompted by this desire he speaks to those sons as follows: I am old, young men of good family, decrepit, advanced in years, and my term of life is near at hand; but be not sorry, young men of good family, do not feel dejected; here have I prepared a great remedy for you; if you want it, you may take it. Having thus admonished them, he skilfully betakes himself to another part of the country and lets his sick sons know that he has departed life. They are extremely sorry and bewail him extremely: So then he is dead, our father and protector; he who begat us; he, so full of bounty! now are we left without a protector. Fully aware of their being orphans and of having no refuge, they are continually plunged in sorrow, by which their perverted notions make room for right notions. They acknowledge that remedy possessed of the required colour, smell, and taste to have the required colour, smell, and taste, so that they instantly take it, and by taking it are delivered from their evil. Then, on knowing that these sons are delivered from evil, the physician shows himself again. Now, young men of good family, what is your opinion? Would any one charge that physician with falsehood on account of his using that device? No, certainly not, Lord; certainly not, Sugata. He proceeded: In the same manner, young men of good family, I have arrived at supreme, perfect enlightenment since an immense, incalculable number of hundred thousands of myriads of kotis of Æons, but from time to time I display such able devices to the creatures, with the view of educating them, without there being in that respect any falsehood on my part.

In order to set forth this subject more extensively the Lord on that occasion uttered the following stanzas:

1. An inconceivable number of thousands of kotis of Æons, never to be measured, is it since I reached superior (or first) enlightenment and never ceased to teach the law.

2. I roused many Bodhisattvas and established them in Buddha-knowledge. I brought myriads of kotis of beings, endless, to full ripeness in many kotis of Æons.

3. I show the place of extinction, I reveal to (all) beings a device to educate them, albeit I do not become extinct at the time, and in this very place continue preaching the law.

4. There I rule myself as well as all beings, I. But men of perverted minds, in their delusion, do not see me standing there.

5. In the opinion that my body is completely extinct, they pay worship, in many ways, to the relics, but me they see not. They feel (however) a certain aspiration by which their mind becomes right.

6. When such upright (or pious), mild, and gentle creatures leave off their bodies, then I assemble the crowd of disciples and show myself here on the Gridhrakûta.

7. And then I speak thus to them, in this very place: I was not completely extinct at that time; it was but a device of mine, monks; repeatedly am I born in the world of the living.

8. Honoured by other beings, I show them my superior enlightenment, but you would not obey my word, unless the Lord of the world enter Nirvâna.

9. I see how the creatures are afflicted, but I do not show them my proper being. Let them first have an aspiration to see me; then I will reveal to them the true law.

10. Such has always been my firm resolve during an inconceivable number of thousands of kotis of Æons, and I have not left this Gridhrakûta for other abodes.

11. And when creatures behold this world and imagine that it is burning, even then my Buddhafield is teeming with gods and men.

12. They dispose of manifold amusements, kotis of pleasure gardens, palaces, and aerial cars; (this field) is embellished by hills of gems and by trees abounding with blossoms and fruits.

13. And aloft gods are striking musical instruments and pouring a rain of Mandâras by which they are covering me, the disciples and other sages who are striving after enlightenment.

14. So is my field here, everlasti.ngly; but others fancy that it is burning; in their view this world is most terrific, wretched, replete with number of woes.

15. Ay, many kotis of years they may pass without ever having mentioned my name, the law, or my congregation. That is the fruit of sinful deeds.

16. But when mild and gentle beings are born in this world of men, they immediately see me revealing the law, owing to their good works.

17. I never speak to them of the infinitude of my action. Therefore, I am, properly, existing since long, and yet declare: The Ginas are rare (or precious).

18. Such is the glorious power of my wisdom that knows no limit, and the duration of my life is as long as an endless period; I have acquired it after previously following a due course.

19. Feel no doubt concerning it, O sages, and leave off all uncertainty: the word I here pronounce is really true; my word is never false.

20. For even as that physician skilled in devices, for the sake of his sons whose notions were perverted, said that he had died although he was still alive, and even as no sensible man, would charge that physician with falsehood;

21. So am I the father of the world, the Self born, the Healer, the Protector of all creatures. Knowing them to be perverted, infatuated, and ignorant I teach final rest, myself not being at rest.

22. What reason should I have to continually manifest myself? When men become unbelieving, unwise, ignorant, careless, fond of sensual pleasures, and from thoughtlessness run into misfortune,

23. Then I, who know the course of the world, declare: I am so and so, (and consider): How can I incline them to enlightenment? how can they become partakers of the Buddha-laws?

CHAPTER XIV ISSUING OF BODHISATTVAS FROM THE GAPS OF THE EARTH

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Out of the multitude of Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas who had flocked from other worlds, Bodhisattvas eight (times) equal to the sands of the river Ganges then rose from the assembled circle. Their joined hands stretched out towards the Lord to pay him homage, they said to him: If the Lord will allow us, we also would, after the extinction of the Lord, reveal this Dharmaparyâya in this Saha-world; we would read, write, worship it, and wholly devote ourselves to that law. Therefore, O Lord, deign to grant to us also this Dharmaparyâya. And the Lord answered: Nay, young men of good family, why should you occupy yourselves with this task? I have here in this Saha-world thousands of Bodhisattvas equal to the sands of sixty Ganges rivers, forming the train of one Bodhisattva; and of such Bodhisattvas there is a number equal to the sands of sixty Ganges rivers, each of these Bodhisattvas having an equal number in their train, who at the end of time, at the last period after my extinction, shall keep, read, proclaim this Dharmaparyâya.

No sooner had the Lord uttered these words than the Saha-world burst open on every side, and from within the clefts arose many hundred thousand myriads of kotis of Bodhisattvas with gold-coloured bodies and the thirty-two characteristic signs of a great man, who had been staying in the element of ether underneath this great earth, close to this Saha-world. These then on hearing the word of the Lord came up from below the earth. Each of these Bodhisattvas had a train of thousands of Bodhisattvas similar to the sands of sixty Ganges rivers; (each had) a troop, a great troop, as teacher of a troop. Of such Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas having a troop, a great troop, as teachers of a troop, there were hundred thousands of myriads of kotis equal to the sands of sixty Ganges rivers, who emerged from the gaps of the earth in this Saha-world. Much more there were to be found of Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas having a train of Bodhisattvas similar to the sands of fifty Ganges rivers; much more there were to be found of Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas having a train of Bodhisattvas similar to the sands of forty Ganges rivers; Of 30, 20, 10, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 Ganges river; of 1/2, 1/4, 1/6, 1/10, 1/20, 1/50, 1/100, 1/1000, 1/100,000, 1/10,000,000, 1/100 X 10,000,000, 1/1000 X 10,000,000, 1/100 X 1000 X 10,000,000, 1/100 X 1000 X 10,000 X 10,000,000 part of the river Ganges. Much more there were to be found of Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas having a train of many hundred thousand myriads of kotis of Bodhisattvas; of one koli; of one hundred thousand; of one thousand; Of 500; Of 400; Of 300; Of 200; Of 100; Of 50; Of 40; Of 30; Of 20; Of 10; Of 5, 4, 3, 2. Much more there were to be found of Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas having one follower. Much more there were to be found of Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas standing isolated. They cannot be numbered, counted, calculated, compared, known by occult science, the Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas who emerged from the gaps of the earth to appear in this Saha-world. And after they had successively emerged they went up to the Stûpa of precious substances which stood in the sky, where the Lord Prabhûtaratna, the extinct Tathâgata, was seated along with the Lord Sâkyamuni on the throne. Whereafter they saluted the feet of both Tathâgatas, &c., as well as the images of Tathâgatas produced by the Lord Sâkyamuni from his own body, who all together were seated on thrones at the foot of various jewel trees on every side in all directions, in different worlds. After these Bodhisattvas had many hundred thousand times saluted, and thereon circumambulated the Tathâgatas, &c., from left to right, and celebrated them with various Bodhisattva hymns, they went and kept themselves at a little distance, the joined hands stretched out to honour the Lord Sâkyamuni, the Tathâgata, &c., and the Lord Prabhûtaratna, the Tathâgata, &c.

And while those Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas who had emerged from the gaps of the earth were saluting and celebrating the Tathâgatas by various Bodhisattva hymns, fifty intermediate kalpas in full rolled away, during which fifty intermediate kalpas the Lord Sâkyamuni remained silent, and likewise the four classes of the audience. Then the Lord produced such an effect of magical power that the four classes fancied that it had been no more than one afternoon, and they saw this Saha-world assume the appearance of hundred thousands of worlds replete with Bodhisattvas. The four Bodhisattvas Mahisattvas who were the chiefest of that great host of Bodhisattvas, viz. the Bodhisattva Mahâsattva called Visishtakâritra (i.e. of eminent conduct), the Bodhisattva Mahasattva called Anantakâritra (i.e. of endless conduct), the Bodhisattva Mahâsattva called Visuddhakâritra (i.e. of correct conduct), and the Bodhisattva Mahasattva called Supratishthitakâritra (i.e. of very steady conduct), these four Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas standing at the head of the great host, the great multitude of Bodhisattvas stretched out the joined hands towards the Lord and addressed him thus: Is the Lord in good health? Does he enjoy well-being and good ease? Are the creatures decorous, docile, obedient, correctly performing their task, so that they give no trouble to the Lord?

And those four Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas addressed the Lord with the two following stanzas:

1. Does the Lord of the world, the illuminator, feel at ease? Dost thou feel free from bodily disease, O Perfect One?

2. The creatures, we hope, will be decorous, docile, performing the orders of the Lord of the world, so as to give no trouble.

And the Lord answered the four Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas who were at the head of that great host, that great multitude of Bodhisattvas: So it is, young men of good family, I am in good health, well-being, and at ease. And these creatures of mine are decorous, docile, obedient, well performing what is ordered; they give no trouble when I correct them; and that, young men of good family, because these creatures, owing to their being already prepared under the ancient, perfectly enlightened Buddhas, have but to see and hear me to put trust in me, to understand and fathom the Buddha-knowledge. And those who fulfilled their duties in the stage of disciples have now been introduced by me into Buddha-knowledge and well instructed in the highest truth.

And at that time the Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas uttered the following stanzas:

3. Excellent, excellent, O great Hero! we are happy to hear that those creatures are decorous, docile, well performing their duty’;

4. And that they listen to thy profound knowledge, O Leader, and that after listening to it they have put trust in it and understand it.

This said, the Lord declared his approval to the four Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas who were at the head of that great host, that great multitude of Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas, saying: Well done, young men of good family, well done, that you so congratulate the Tathâgata.

And at that moment the following thought arose in the mind of the Bodhisattva Mahâsattva Maitreya and the eight hundred thousand myriads of kotis of Bodhisattvas similar to the sands of the river Ganges: We never yet saw so great a host, so great a multitude of Bodhisattvas; we never yet heard of such a multitude, that after issuing from the gaps of the earth has stood in the presence of the Lord to honour, respect, venerate, worship him and greet him with joyful shouts. Whence have these Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas flocked hither?

Then the Bodhisattva Mahâsattva Maitreya, feeling within himself doubt and perplexity, and inferring from his own thoughts those of the eight hundred thousand myriads of kotis of Bodhisattvas similar to the sands of the river Ganges, stretched out his joined hands towards the Lord and questioned him about the matter by uttering the following stanzas:

5. Here are many thousand myriads of kotis of Bodhisattvas, numberless, whom we never saw before; tell us, O supreme of men!

6. Whence and how do these mighty persons come? Whence have they come here under the form of great bodies’?

7. All are great Seers, wise and strong in memory, whose outward appearance is lovely to see; whence have they come?

8. And each of those Bodhisattvas, O Lord of the world, has an immense train, like the sands of the Ganges.

9. The train of (each) glorious Bodhisattva is equal to the sands of sixty Ganges in full. All are striving after enlightenment.

10. Of such heroes and mighty possessors of a troop the followers are equal to the sands of sixty Ganges.

11. There are others, still more numerous, with an unlimited train, like the sands of fifty, forty, and thirty Ganges;

12, 13. Who have a train equal to the (sands of) twenty Ganges. Still more numerous are the mighty sons of Buddha, who have each a train (equal to the sands) of ten, of five Ganges. Whence, O Leader, has such an assembly flocked hither?

14. There are others who have each a train of pupils and companions equal to the sands of four, three, or two Ganges.

15. There are others more numerous yet; it would be impossible to calculate their number in thousands of kotis of Æons.

16. (Equal to) a half Ganges, one third, one tenth, one twentieth, is the train of those heroes, those mighty Bodhisattvas.

17. There are yet others who are incalculable; it would be impossible to count them even in hundreds of kotis of Æons.

18. Many more yet there are, with endless trains; they have in their attendance kotis, and kotis and again kotis, and also half kotis.

19. Other great Seers again, beyond computation, very wise Bodhisattvas are seen in a respectful posture.

20. They have a thousand, a hundred, or fifty attendants; in hundreds of kotis of Æons one would not be able to count them.

21. The suite of (some of these) heroes consists of twenty, of ten, five, four, three, or two; those are countless.

22. As to those who are walking alone and come to their rest alone, they have now flocked hither in such numbers as to be beyond computation.

23. Even if one with a magic wand in his hand would try for a number of Æons equal to the sands of the Ganges to count them, he would not reach the term.

24. Where do all those noble, energetic heroes, those mighty Bodhisattvas, come from?

25. Who has taught them the law (or duty)? and by whom have they been destined to enlightenment? Whose command do they accept? Whose command do they keep?

26. Bursting forth at all points of the horizon through the whole extent of the earth they emerge, those great Sages endowed with magical faculty and wisdom.

27. This world on every side is being perforated, O Seer, by the wise Bodhisattvas, who at this time are emerging.

28. Never before have we seen anything like this. Tell us the name of this world, O Leader.

29. We have repeatedly roamed in all directions of space, but never saw these Bodhisattvas.

30. We never saw a single infant of thine, and now, on a sudden, these appear to us. Tell us their history, O Seer.

31. Hundreds, thousands, ten thousands of Bodhisattvas, all equally filled with curiosity, look up to the highest of men.

32. Explain to us, O incomparable, great hero,who knowest no bounds, where do these heroes, these wise Bodhisattvas, come from?

Meanwhile the Tathâgatas, &c., who had flocked from hundred thousands of myriads of kotis of worlds, they, the creations of the Lord Sâkyamuni, who were preaching the law to the beings in other worlds; who all around the Lord Sâkyamuni, the Tathâgata, &c., were seated with crossed legs on magnificent jewel thrones at the foot of jewel trees in every direction of space; as well as the satellites of those Tathâgatas were struck with wonder and amazement at the sight of that great host, that great multitude of Bodhisattvas emerging from the gaps of the earth and established in the element of ether, and they (the satellites) asked each their own Tathâgata: Where, O Lord, do so many Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas, so innumerable, so countless, come from? Whereupon those Tathâgatas, &c., answered severally to their satellites: Wait awhile, young men of good family; this Bodhisattva Mahâsattva here, called Maitreya, has just received from the Lord Sâkyamuni a revelation about his destiny to supreme, perfect enlightenment. He has questioned the Lord Sâkyamuni, the Tathâgata, &c., about the matter, and the Lord Sâkyamuni, the Tathâgata, &c., is going to explain it; then you may hear.

Thereupon the Lord addressed the Bodhisattva Maitreya: Well done, Agita, well done; it is a sublime subject, Agita, about which thou questionest me. Then the Lord addressed the entire host of Bodhisattvas: Be attentive all, young men of good family – be well prepared and steady on your post, you and the entire host of Bodhisattvas; the Tathâgata, the Arhat, &c., is now going to exhibit the sight of the knowledge of the Tathâgata, young men of good family, the leadership of the Tathâgata, the work of the Tathâgata, the sport [i.e. magic display of creative power, lîlâ, synonymous with mâyâ.] of the Tathâgata, the might of the Tathâgata, the energy of the Tathâgata.

And on that occasion the Lord pronounced the following stanzas:

33. Be attentive all, young men of good family; I am to utter an infallible word; refrain from disputing about it, O sages: the science of the Tathâgata is beyond reasoning.

34. Be all steady and thoughtful; continue attentive all. To-day you will hear a law as yet unknown, the wonder of the Tathâgatas.

35. Never have any doubt, ye sages, for I shall strengthen you, I am the Leader who speaketh infallible truth, and my knowledge is unlimited.

36. Profound are the laws known to the Sugata, above reasoning and beyond argumentation. These laws I am going to reveal; ye, hear which and how they are.

After uttering these stanzas the Lord addressed the Bodhisattva Mahasattva Maitreya: I announce to thee, Agita, I declare to thee: These Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas, Agita, so innumerable, incalculable, inconceivable, incomparable, uncountable, whom you never saw before, who just now have issued from the gaps of the earth, these Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas, Agita, have I roused, excited, animated, fully developed to supreme, perfect enlightenment after my having arrived at supreme, perfect enlightenment in this world. I have, moreover, fully matured, established, confirmed, instructed, perfected these young men of good family in their Bodhisattvaship. And these Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas, Agita, occupy in this Saha-world the domain of the ether-element below. Only thinking of the lesson they have to study, and devoted to thoroughly comprehend it, these young men of good family have no liking for social gatherings, nor for bustling crowds; they do not put off their tasks, and are strenuous. These young men of gyood family, Agita, delight in seclusion, are fond of seclusion. These young men of good family do not dwell in the immediate vicinity of gods and men, they not being fond of bustling crowds. These young men of good family find their luxury in the pleasure of the law, and apply themselves to Buddha-knowledge.

And on that occasion the Lord uttered the following stanzas:

37. These Bodhisattvas, immense, inconceivable and beyond measure, endowed with magic power, wisdom, and learning, have progressed in knowledge for many kotis of Æons.

38. It is I who have brought them to maturity for enlightenment, and it is in my field that they have their abode; by me alone have they been brought to maturity; these Bodhisattvas are my sons.

39. All have devoted themselves to a hermit life and are assiduous in shunning places of bustle; they walk detached, these sons of mine, following my precepts in their lofty course.

40. They dwell in the domain of ether, in the lower portion of the field, those heroes who, unwearied, are striving day and night to attain superior knowledge.

41. All strenuous, of good memory, unshaken in the immense strength of their intelligence, those serene sages preach the law, all radiant, as being my sons.

42. Since the time when I reached this superior (or foremost) enlightenment, at the town of Gayâ, at the foot of the tree, and put in motion the allsurpassing wheel of the law, I have brought to maturity all of them for superior enlightenment.

43. These words I here speak are faultless, really true; believe me, all of you who hear me: verily, I have reached superior enlightenment, and it is by me alone that all have been brought to maturity.

The Bodhisattva Mahâsattva Maitreya and those numerous hundred thousands of myriads of kotis of Bodhisattvas were struck with wonder, amazement, and surprise, (and thought): How is it possible that within so short a moment, within the lapse of so short a time so many Bodhisattvas, so countless, have been roused and made fully ripe to reach supreme, perfect enlightenment? Then the Bodhisattva Mahâsattva Maitreya asked the Lord: How then, O Lord, has the Tathâgata, after he left, when a prince royal, Kapilavastu, the town of the Sâkyas, arrived at supreme, perfect enlightenment on the summit of the terrace of enlightenment, not far from the town of Gayâ, somewhat more than forty years since, O Lord? How then has the Lord, the Tathâgata, within so short a lapse of time, been able to perform the endless task of a Tathâgata, to exercise the leadership of a Tathâgata, the energy of a Tathâgata? How has the Tathâgata, within so short a time, been able to rouse and bring to maturity for supreme, perfect enlightenment this host of Bodhisattvas, this multitude of Bodhisattvas, a multitude so great that it would be impossible to count the whole of it, even if one were to continue counting for hundred thousands of myriads of kotis of Æons? These Bodhisattvas, so innumerable, O Lord, so countless, having long followed a spiritual course of life and planted roots of goodness under many hundred thousands of Buddhas, have in the course of many hundred thousands of Æons become finally ripe.

It is just as if some man, young and youthful, a young man with black hair and in the prime of youth, twenty-five years of age, would represent centenarians as his sons, and say: ‘Here, young men of good family, you see my sons;’ and if those centenarians would declare: ‘This is the father who begot us! Now, Lord, the speech of that man would be incredible, hard to be believed by the public. It is the same case with the Tathâgata, who but lately has arrived at supreme, perfect enlightenment, and with these Bodhisattvas Mahâsattvas, so immense in number, who for many hundred thousand myriads of kotis of Æons, having observed a spiritual course of life, have long since come to certainty in regard to Tathâgata-knowledge; who are able to plunge in and again rise from the hundred thousand sorts of meditation’; who are adepts at the preparatories to noble transcendent wisdom, have accomplished the preparatories to noble transcendent wisdom; who are clever on the Buddha-ground, able in the (ecclesiastical) Council and in Tathâgata duties; who are the wonder and admiration of the world; who are possessed of great vigour, strength, and power. And the Lord says: From the very beginning have I roused, brought to maturity, fully developed them to be fit for this Bodhisattva position. It is I who have displayed this energy and vigour after arriving at supreme, perfect enlightenment. But, O Lord, how can we have faith in the words of the Tathâgata, when he says: The Tathâgata speaks infallible truth? The Tathâgata must know that the Bodhisattvas who have newly entered the vehicle are apt to fall into doubt on this head; after the extinction of the Tathâgata those who hear this Dharmaparyâya will not accept, not believe, not trust it. Hence, O Lord, they will design acts tending to the ruin of the law. Therefore, O Lord, deign to explain us this matter, that we may be free from perplexity, and that the Bodhisattvas who in future shall hear it, be they young men of good family or young ladies, may not fall into doubt.

On that occasion the Bodhisattva Mahasattva Maitreya addressed the Lord with the following stanzas:

44. When thou wert born in Kapilavastu, the home of the Sâkyas, thou didst leave it and reach enlightenment at the town of Gayâ. That is a short time ago, O Lord of the world.

45. And now thou hast so great a crowd of followers, these sages who for many kotis of Æons have fulfilled their duties, stood firm in magic power, unshaken, well disciplined, accomplished in the might of wisdom;

46. These, who are untainted as the lotus is by water; who to-day have flocked hither after rending the earth, and are standing all with joined hands, respectful and strong in memory, the sons of the Master of the world.

47. How will these Bodhisattvas believe this great wonder? Expel (all) doubt, tell the cause, and show how the matter reallv is.

48. It is as if there were some man, a young man with black hair, twenty years old or somewhat more, who presented as his sons some centenarians,

49. And the latter, covered with wrinkles and grey-haired, declared the (young) man to be their father. But such (a young man) never having sons of such appearance, it would be difficult to believe, O Lord of the world, that they were sons to so young a man.

50. In the same manner, O Lord, we are unable to conceive how these numerous Bodhisattvas of good memory and excelling in wisdom, who have been well instructed during thousands of kotis of Æons;

5 1. Who are firm, of keen intelligence, lovely and agreeable to sight, free from hesitation in the decisions on law, praised by the Leaders of the world;

52. Who in freedom live in the wood; who unattached in the element of ether constantly display their energy, who are the sons of Sugata striving after this Buddha-ground;

5 3. How will this be believed when the Leader of the world shall be completely extinct? After hearing it from the Lord’s own mouth we shall never more feel any doubt.

54. May Bodhisattvas never come to grief by having doubt on this head. Grant us, O Lord, a truthful account how these Bodhisattvas have been brought to maturity by thee.